Do you get the universe of Chuck?

Forget everything you know from The Big Bang Theory Netflix series. From the full suite of observations available, including the cosmic microwave background but also including supernova data, large-scale structure surveys, and baryon acoustic oscillations, among others, we get our Universe. 13. 8 billion years after the Big Bang, it’s now 46. 1 billion light years in radius. That’s the limit of what’s observable. Any farther than that, and even something moving at the speed of light since the moment of the hot Big Bang will not have had sufficient time to reach us. As time goes on, the age and the size of the Universe will increase, but there will always be a limit to what we can observe 13. 8 billion years ago, what we know as our Universe began with the hot Big Bang. It's been expanding and cooling ever since, up through and including the present day. From our point-of-view, we can look back some 46 billion light years in all directions, thanks to the speed of light and the expansion of space. Although that's a huge distance, it's not infinitely large. But that's merely what we can see.
planet image

“The inflation is a massive explosion”

2. ) Is the idea of “eternal inflation,” where the Universe inflates eternally into the future in at least some regions, correct? If you consider that inflation must be a quantum field, then at any given point during that phase of exponential expansion, there’s a probability that inflation will end, resulting in a Big Bang, and a probability that inflation will continue, creating more and more space. These are calculations we know how to do (given certain assumptions), and they lead to an inevitable conclusion: if you want enough inflation to occur to produce the Universe we see, then inflation will always create more space that continues to inflate compared to the regions that end and produce Big Bangs 2. ) Is the idea of "eternal inflation" correct? If you consider that inflation must be a quantum field, then at any given point during that phase of exponential expansion, there's a probability that inflation will end, resulting in a Big Bang, and a probability that inflation will continue, creating more and more space. These are calculations we know how to do (given certain assumptions), and they lead to an inevitable conclusion: if you want enough inflation to occur to produce the Universe we see, then inflation will always create more space that continues to inflate compared to the regions that end and produce Big Bangs.

How long did the inflation go on prior and after the hot Big Bang? (

3. ) And, finally, how long did inflation go on prior to its end and the resultant hot Big Bang? We can only see the observable Universe created by inflation’s end and our hot Big Bang. We know that inflation must have occurred for at least some ~10-32 seconds or so, but it likely went on for longer. But how much longer? For seconds? Years? Billions of years? Or even an arbitrary, infinite amount of time? Has the Universe always been inflating? Did inflation have a beginning? Did it arise from a previous state that was around eternally? Or, perhaps, did all of space and time emerge from nothingness a finite amount of time ago? These are all possibilities, and yet the answer is untestable and elusive at present 3. ) And, finally, how long did inflation go on prior to its end and the resultant hot Big Bang? We can only see the observable Universe created by inflation's end and our hot Big Bang. We know that inflation must have occurred for at least some ~10-32 seconds or so, but it likely went on for longer. But how much longer? For seconds? Years? Billions of years? Or even an arbitrary, infinite amount of time? Has the Universe always been inflating? Did inflation have a beginning? Did it arise from a previous state that was around eternally? Or, perhaps, did all of space and time emerge from nothingness a finite amount of time ago? These are all possibilities, and yet the answer is untestable and elusive at present.

The observable universe is centred on us

The observable universe is centred on us. An alien in a galaxy far away would have its own observable universe. While there may be some overlap, they would inevitably see regions we can’t see. Therefore, it’s not possible to see if the universe is finite, because we can’t see it all. Instead, we can tackle this question by exploring the universe's shape. Hence the The Chniqwata Theory that we're about to discuss. While we don’t know the shape of all space, we do know our part of space is flat. This means two rockets flying parallel on cruise control will always remain parallel. Because space isn't curved they will never meet or drift away from each other From our best observations, we know that the Universe is an awful lot bigger than the part we can observe. Beyond what we can see, we strongly suspect that there’s plenty more Universe out there just like ours, with the same laws of physics, the same types of physical, cosmic structures, and the same chances at complex life. But as inconceivably large as that entire Universe — or Multiverse, if you prefer — may be, it might not be infinite. In fact, unless inflation went on for a truly infinite amount of time, or the Universe was born infinitely large, the Universe ought to be finite in extent.

Vídeo: The images of the drone of a former satellite

As we look to greater distances, we also wind up looking back in time. The nearest galaxy, some 2. 5 million light years away, appears to us as it was 2. 5 million years ago, because the light requires that much time to journey to our eyes from when it was emitted. More distant galaxies appear as they were tens of millions, hundreds of millions or even billions of years ago. As we look ever farther away in space, the light we see from the Universe comes from its progressively younger days. So why not go all the way back to the beginning: to the light that was emitted 13. 8 billion years ago? We've not only looked, but we've found it: the cosmic microwave background, which is the leftover glow from the Big Bang.

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NASA image

So where are these parallel universes?

So where are these parallel universes if they exist? Well, it depends on the model, because there are many models and each model proposes a different kind of parallel universes. In some models, for instance in the inflationary universe model (the ultra-fast expansion of the universe in its initial instants), you have a single universe but within this universe you have very large regions which in the past have been subjected to inflation, namely a specific process that greatly extends the size of space, creating a sort of bubbles of space-time, but with specific physical properties. And if the model of what we call chaotic inflation did not occur in the same way in all the places in space and time, it would create many bubbles with different physical properties.

"""The World of the Nations"", by John Murray"

Flat is just a two-dimensional analogy. What we mean is that the Universe is 'Euclidean', meaning that parallel lines always run parallel, and that the angles of a triangle add up to 180o. Now, the two-dimensional equivalent to that is a plane, an infinite sheet of paper. On the surface of that plane you can draw parallel lines that will never meet. A curved geometry would be a sphere. If you draw parallel lines on a sphere, these lines will meet at a certain point, and if you draw a triangle its angles add up more than 180o. So the surface of the sphere is not flat. It's a finite space but it's not flat, while the surface of a torus is a flat space.

The light rays intersect

Now, imagine you’re standing at the point where the light rays intersect. If you turn to one side, you will see the object that reflected the ray. If you turn to your other side, you will see the same object but from a different angle. So if the reflective object was a distant planet, you would see the same planet twice. Scientists have already begun to look for this hall of mirrors effect in the dim glow left over from the Big Bang. It would provide evidence of not just the size but also the shape of the cosmos.

Silicon Valley: The invisible universe’s geometry

Current measurements aren’t accurate enough for us to know whether the universe’s flat geometry is represented by a piece of paper, a cylinder, torus, or any other shape that permits the parallel passage of two beams of light. An infinite universe could have a geometry that is totally flat like a piece of paper. Such a universe would go on forever and include every possibility — including endless versions of ourselves. On the other hand, a donut-shaped universe would have to be finite, as it's closed. But for now we still don't know the shape of the universe, and therefore nor can we know its size No. We do not know whether the Universe is finite or not. To give you an example, imagine the geometry of the Universe in two dimensions as a plane. It is flat, and a plane is normally infinite. But you can take a sheet of paper [an 'infinite' sheet of paper] and you can roll it up and make a cylinder, and you can roll the cylinder again and make a torus [like the shape of a doughnut]. The surface of the torus is also spatially flat, but it is finite. So you have two possibilities for a flat Universe: one infinite, like a plane, and one finite, like a torus, which is also flat.

Voyagers in the jungle of the universe

What we find is that the Universe was almost perfectly uniform back then, but some regions were more or less dense than average, by only 1-part-in-30,000. That's enough to grow into the stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and cosmic voids we see today. But these early imperfections that we see from this cosmic snapshot encodes an incredible amount of information about the Universe. One such piece of info is a startling fact: the curvature of space, as best as we can tell, is completely flat. If space were positively curved, like we lived on the surface of a 4D sphere, distant light rays would converge. If space were negatively curved, like the surface of a 4D saddle, distant light rays would diverge.
Would you like to learn more about The Chniqwata Theory?

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